View Full Version : Universal timeline

2011-09-09, 07:16 AM

Forming of The Plane of Elemental chaos

* 1 billion years ago Chaos -Chaos is the only age that falls within the rule of Primordials,

Forming of The Material plane

4600 -542 million years ago Precambrian

542 - 488.3 million years ago Cambrian

488.7 - 443.5 million years ago Ordovician

450 million years ago: plants colonize the land. Sharks evolve.

420 million years ago: first creature took a breath of air

416 to 359.2 million years ago Devonian

400 million years ago: First insects.

359.2 - 299 million years ago Carboniferous

315 million years ago: the evolution of the first reptiles.

299 - 251 million years ago Permian Period

251.4 million years ago: Permian mass extinction.

250 - 200 million years ago Triassic

220 million years ago: first crocodilians

215 million years ago: first turtles

199.6 - 145.5 million years ago Jurassic

195 million years ago: first mammals.

145.5 - 65.5 million years Cretaceous

135 million years ago: First birds

.65 million years- Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event The non-avian dinosaurs died out

65.5 to 56 million years ago The Paleocene

60 million years ago: evolution of the first primates and rodents.

56 to 34 million years ago The Eocene

55 million years ago: First known bats.

49 million years ago: whales return to the water

34 million to 23 million years ago The Oligocene

34 million years ago: cats evolve

23.03 to 5.332 million years ago The Miocene

5.332 million to 2.588 million years The Pliocene

4.8 million years ago: The mammoth appears.

2,588,000 The Pleistocene

2.5 million years ago: Smilodon, the best known of the sabre-toothed cats, appears.

110,000 The begining of the last ice age during the last years of the Pleistocene, to approximately 18,000 years ago.

500,000 BC: Shelter construction

400,000 BC: Spear

200,000 BC: Glue

100,000 years ago: Domestication of dogs

75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano supereruption.

60,000 BC Bow and arrow.

36,000 BC: Cloth woven from flax fiber

35,000 BC: Flute

33,000 BC Shared cultures between Fey and humans.

31,000 years ago: Cave paintings

30,000 BC Alulim was the first king of Eridu, and the first king of Sumer, making him the first recorded king in the world. Enki, the god of Eridu, or his mortal son Adapa, are said to have brought civilization to Sumer at this point, or just shortly before.

28,000 BC: twisted Rope

27,000 years ago. End of shared cultures located around central and south western France, between Fey and humans.

22,000 years ago. No-humans believed to have become extinct in Europe.

20,000 years ago. Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history proper began.

18,000 years ago. The last glacial period ends; rise of human civilization.

17880 Chaos gives birth to Gaia

17700 Gaia gives birth to Uranus

17500 Uranus rapes Gaia. The Hecatonchires, Cyclopes and the Titans are born.

17100 The Titans fight Uranus and eventually he is defeated by Cronus (Saturn). Cronus cuts off Uranus' genitals with a sickle and throws them towards Cythera. Aphrodite emerges naked from the sea and travels to Cyprus.

Hesiod's first age: The Golden Age of Mankind (17100BC-16740BC) The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Titans,

17050-16750 Cronus becomes ruler of Greece. Imprisons the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus, then organises the Titans giving each a dominion.

17030 BC Cronus is warned not to take Rhea as his wife or have children with her, otherwise one of his children will dethrone him. He ignores this and Rhea gives birth to Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cronus swallows his children in order to avoid the prophesy but astone is substituted by Rhea in place of Zeus who is taken by his mother into hiding in Crete.

17030-16840 Zeus grows up in the Dictyan caves near Lato. When fully gown he makes Cronus drunk, causing him to vomit out his brothers and sisters.

16840 The Titanomachy

In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans, was the ten-year series of battles between the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, based on Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. This Titanomachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans, Battle of Gods, or just The Titan War.

After the youngest Titan, Cronus, overthrew his own father, Uranus, with the help of his mother Gaia. Cronus then castrated his father, took his throne, and released his fellow Titan siblings, who had been locked away in Tartarus under Uranus' tyrannical and selfish reign.

However, as Uranus was usurped, he made a prophecy that Cronus' own children would rebel against his rule and castrate and depose him just as he and his siblings had done to him. For fear of his unborn children rising against him, Cronus now turned into the terrible king his father Uranus had been fearing their strenght he re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus.

After marrying from his wife (and sister) Rhea, he swallowed each of his children whole as they were born - Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Being immortal, this did not kill them, but they remained trapped inside him. Rhea grieved for the loss of her children. So, when she was close to giving birth to Zeus, she consulted with her parents Gaia and Uranus. They revealed the future to her, showing her how to thwart Cronus. When Cronus came to Rhea for their child, Rhea gave him instead a stone, wrapped in cloths. Not noticing, he swallowed the stone instead. Rhea brought Zeus to a cave on an abandoned island, where Zeus was raised.

When Zeus grew up, he went to one of Cronus' parties disguised as a fellow Titan, and gave Cronus some special potion, which caused Cronus to vomit up his swallowed siblings. Zeus then led his brothers and sisters in rebellion against the Titans.

Now the Olympians, led by Zeus, declared war against the previous generation of deities, the Titans. The Titans who fought were led by Cronus and included: Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Atlas, and Menoetius. The Olympians (Zesus's siblings) led by Zeus. Additionally, the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes and Cyclopes, who had been imprisoned by Cronus, assisted in the revolt. The Hecatonchires helped the Olympians by hurling huge stones at the Titans. The Cyclopes helped by crafting Zeus' famous weapon, the lightning bolt.

Having at last won victory after a full decade of war, the Olympian gods divided the spoils between themselves, granting dominion of the heavens and sky to Zeus, the sea to Poseidon, and the underworld to Hades. The Olympians then shut the defeated Titans within Tartarus. However, since during the war Oceanus and the Titanides (female Titans), Thia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Hecate, Metis and Tethys, had remained neutral, they were not punished by Zeus. Some other Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus include: Atlas, Cronus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus. Zeus gave Atlas a different punishment. The sky, nearly collapsed onto the earth after the war because so much fighting had occurred below. As a result, Zeus condemned Atlas to hold up the heavens and sky for eternity. Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus switched sides and aided Zeus in the war therefore they were not punished. Cronus manage to flee after the war, thereby avoiding imprisonment in Tartarus. The Hecatonchires remained to guard over the prisoners of Tartarus.

16840 or 16740 Zeus takes his sister Hera as wife

16840-16740 Births of Hephaestus, Ares, Eris, Hebe.

16840 Inachus becomes king and judges that the land of the Peloponnese belongs to Hera

16740 Victory for Zeus. Cronus is exiled to Elysia or Sicily. Zeus rules the heavens, Poseidon the sea and Hades the underworld. The land is common to all of the Gods.

Hesiod's second age: The Silver Age of Mankind (1674BC-1628BC) - The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of The Gods.

In the silver age Zeus reduced the spring, and reconstructed the year into four seasons, so that men for the first time sought the shelter of houses and had to labor to supply their food.

The first seeds of grain were placed in the ground since now man had to gather their own food. A child grew up at his mother's side a hundred years, but adulthood lasted a short time.

Bridging the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved together. These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more freely than they did later.

16740-67 Births of Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Athena by different mothers.

16670 Prometheus is chained to the rocks after stealing the secret of fire from the Gods and giving it to man

16670 Zeus has affair with Io the daughter of Inachus and carries her off to Egypt where she marries Telegonus.

16640 Herakles the Dactyl holds the first Olympic Games

16590 Phoroneus son of Inachus, the first man, rules over the entire Peloponnese from Phronocium later to become Argos

16540 Epimetheus is given Pandora to be his wife. Pandora is given a jar as a wedding present and told not to open it. Pandora opens it and mankind suffers the consequences of disobedience.

16450 Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt.

16400 Gigantomachy The Battle of the Gods and Giants errupts and Porphyrion is defeated.

16280 Epaphus is murdered. The Titans attempt to regain power but fail. Atlas is punished by being made to carry the heavens on his shoulders. Typhon is defeated and imprisoned under a volcano.

16,000 years ago. Pottery

13,000 years ago. Beginning of the Holocene extinction generally from the impact of humans.

13,000 years ago. earliest evidence of human warfare.

Throughout more than 90% of Mankinds history, Humans lived in small bands as nomadic hunter-gatherers. As language became more complex, the ability to remember and communicate information resulted in a new replicator: the meme. Ideas could be exchanged quickly and passed down the generations.

10500-8000 BC: the Natufians, groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers in the western fertile crescent, developed a way of life that revolutionized the world; they lived in permanent 100 person villages (such as Nahal Oren), built wooden huts with stone foundations, harvested wild grains with flint sickles, and used grinding stones to process their harvests. Their cities included the city of Jericho. They lived in semi-subterranean, semi-circle houses.

10,000 years ago. Holocene —Dire Wolf, Smilodon, Giant Beaver, Ground Sloth, Giant Imperial Mammoth, Woolly Mammoth, Mastodons, Giant Short-Faced Bear, American Cheetah, Scimitar Cats (Homotherium), American Camels, American Horses, and American Lions all become extinct.

10,000 BC Earliest settlers arrive in Ireland, in the Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age period. They cross by land bridge from Scotland. These people are mainly hunters but they did not war as they were still worshipers of the Great Goddess. Retreat of ice and warming of climate in Wales. Nomadic hunter gatherers in Anglesey and Lleyn.

End of the Paleolithic Period, All continents (except Antarctica) inhabited, Agriculture and the domestication of animals begins.

9600 BC. Atlantis was a naval power that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa.

9564 BC: Destruction of Atlantis the Atlantean priesthood flee to establish colonies in the British Isles, Western Europe, North Africa and South America. Rise of the Northern Mystery Tradition centered on the island Thule and the Aryan culture. Invention of the Runic Alphabet.

9500 BC; First building phase of the temple complex at Göbekli Tepe.

9000 BC Earliest walled city (Jericho)

9000 BC: settlements (such as Karim Shahir) in the Zagros Mountains, in the northern portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys, began farming; they domesticated dogs and, instead of harvesting wild grains, domesticated barley, emmer, wheat, and vegetables.

8500 - 7000 years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture. This spread to neighboring regions, and developed independently elsewhere, until most Humans lived sedentary lives in permanent settlements as farmers.

Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia. However, among those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative stability and increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand.

Agriculture had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before. Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing division of labor. This led to Earth’s first civilization at Sumer in the Middle East

8000-6000 BC: Kiffian culture

7000 BC: ancient Mesopotamians ("between the rivers") developed the first large populated permanent settlements (such as Jarmo and Jericho); they lived in mud brick multi-room houses with mud ovens, used pottery, traded with other villages in the fertile crescent, and domesticated goats, sheep, and pigs.

6000 BC: the Hassuna cultures lived in organized villages with a social courtyard containing a religious shrine, surrounded by mud brick houses, and around the villages were five foot thick walls with community grain or water storage towers; they introduced irrigation for farming, canals for trade, decorated pottery, and lead or copper beads.

5800 BC: Beginning of the Dadiwan culture in China.

5500 BC: Agriculture started in Ancient Egypt.

5500 BC: the Halafian cultures were the first to specialize labor and have cobblestone roads; they were the first to use the potter's wheel and the Kiln to make pottery with brilliantly colored realistic pictures and shapes.

4500-2500 BC: Tenerians culture,

4000 BC: Syrian and Arabian nomads raided southern Mesopotamia, they were eventually absorbed into the Ubadian population.

4000-3200 BC: the Ubaidian cultures made pottery decorated with wave patterns using the potter's wheel; they established many farming settlements including Eridu, Uruk, Adab, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. They lived in lower Mesopotamia.

The Ubaidian settlements emerged as small village communities in the foothills surrounding great river valleys; because they lived close to each other the control over water streams, harvest, and domestication became easier to control and caused increased food production.

As food production increased it was able to supply larger communities and the villages grew into cities, civilization first emerged; cities were the foundation of civilization because with them came other civilizing elements including religious cults, political systems, written language, and monumental architecture.

4000 years ago. Domestication of the horse

4000 BC In Brittain earliest-known camps or communities appear,which are believed to be Druidic.

3600 years ago. In Egypt, mummification around this time in Hierankopolis.

3700 Beginning of the Early Minoan period on Crete

3500 BC: the Sumerians, a nomadic people from the Armenian Plateau northeast of Mesopotamia, migrated into Mesopotamia and intermingled with the population; they brought with them horse-drawn chariots and metallurgy used to make copper helmets and spears.

Under the Sumerians the old cities developed into city-states, governed by a theocratic assembly of priests and, because priests knew what the gods "wanted," they were very influential to the city-states; religion was also important in architecture because the most important building in each city-state was the ziggurat, the temple (or home) of the patron god of that city-state.

The Sumerian city-states were in constant competition with each other, even if by war; despite wars, the governments of the city-states generally maintained friendly relations because, they as aristocrats, held a special bond as the elite of a people who shared a common religion, language, and culture.

3500 - 3000 BC First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as "corpse exposure" was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be consumed by animals and birds.

3200 BC: a writing system was developed in order to keep administrative records; it was called cuneiform and was made up of pictograms (pictures) describing objects and ideograms describing ideas or actions.

The invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom.

3100 years ago. The earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.

2800 BC: Etana became the first Sumerian monarch and established the Kish dynasty; he put northern Mesopotamia under his control, built the first monumental building as his palace, and called himself king of the "four quarters of the world"; Meskiaggasher established the Uruk dynasty and controlled most of the south.

2800-2670 BC: the Kish dynasty established a powerful kingship and because it was situated at a critical spot on the Euphrates river it controlled irrigation flow to the southern city-states and thus kept the Uruk dynasty, in the south, under control.

2900 BC: because the city-states were at constant war, they needed a strong military leader to oversee war and large building projects; they began to replace theocracies with hereditary monarchies and according to ancient tablets, "the kingship came down from heaven."

2750 BC: Enmerkar succeeded his father Meskiaggasher as king of Uruk; he and his general Lugalbanda (who also succeeded Enmerkar as king) conquered Aratta, a city in northeastern Mesopotamia and marked the decreasing power of Kish in the north; their deeds formed the basis of the Lugalbanda Epic.

2700 BC: Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.

2700 BC: Gilgamesh, grandson of Enmerkar, became king of Uruk; he constructed the brick walls around Uruk and his deeds formed the basis of the Gilgamesh Epic; Enmebaragesi became king of Kish, he ordered the construction of the Temple of Enlil at Nippur, which became the spiritual center of Sumer, and he led victorious campaigns against Elam.

2670 years ago. Mesanepada established the Ur dynasty; he defeated Agga, king of Kish, which ended the Kish dynasty, and put the Uruk and Ur dynasties simultaneously in power.

2670-2370 years ago. the Uruk dynasty became weak from constant attacks in the north which only strengthened the power of the Ur dynasty in the south.

2640 years ago. The cultivation and weaving of silk starts to be a closely guarded secret in China.

2600 years ago. Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script for its writing system.

2600 years ago. Use of skis

2600 years ago. Bactrian Camel and Dromedary are domesticated

2600 years ago. Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza

2525 years ago. Lugalannemudu of Adab, a city in the north, united northern Sumer under his control; his power quickly passed to Mesilim, king of Kish; these conquests by the northern city-states ended the Uruk dynasty and put the Ur dynasty in complete power.

2500 years ago. the construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge begins and continues for the next five hundred years.

2425 years ago. Eannatum established the Lagash dynasty; he united Sumer under his control, called himself king of Kish, and conquered much neighboring territory.

2452 years ago.Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, a group of legendary rulers in Ancient China.

2370 years ago. Urukagina of became king of Lagash; he enacted many social reforms and during his reign Lugalzagesi, king of Umma, defeated him and took control of Sumer, which went into a state of civil strife.

2350 years ago. Sargon I, a Kish general, usurped and became king of Kish; he defeated Lugalzagesi and took control of Sumer, built his capital at Akkad and established the Akkadian dynasty, he centralized trade, made his daughter priestess of Ur, repaired the irrigation systems, and created the first professional army of 5400 men.

2250 years ago. Manituu, son of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he defeated "32 cities in Iran," the Elamites, and the many other city-states which tested his military strength.

2240 years ago. Akkad, capital of the Akkadian Empire, becomes the largest city in the world, surpassing Memphis, capital of Egypt.

2230 years ago. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he extended the empire to "the four quarters of the world" and was the first king to deify himself.

2218 years ago. the Gutians, a group of nomadic peoples east of Mesopotamia, swept through Mesopotamia, destroyed Akkad, and conquered Sumer; in the ancient writings Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin angered the god Enlil, who made the Gutians attack.

2181 years ago. Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt

2160 years ago. Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe

2144 years ago. Gudea became king of Lagash; despite Gutian rule of Sumer he took control of southern Mesopotamia, encouraged literature, and initiated religious constructions; after his death he was deified and many magnificent statues were produced in his honor.

2130 years ago. Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor

2134 years ago. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I

2120 years ago. Utuhegal became king of Uruk; he and his general, Ur-Nammu, defeated the Gutians and drove them from Sumer; Utuhegal rewarded Ur-Nammu by making him governor of Ur.

2113 BC: Ur-Nammu established the 3rd Ur dynasty and declared himself king of Sumer and Akkad; he defeated Utuhegal, king of Uruk, and Nammahani, king of Lagash, united Sumer under his rule, constructed many temples, and established the first code of laws which emphasized the king's duty to protect the people against injustice.

2104 BC – The Ogygian Deluge occurs.

2095 BC: Shulgi succeeded his father Ur-Nammu as king of Ur; during his reign their was a drastic water shortage, he reorganized irrigation systems and encouraged economic records on clay tablets.

2037 BC—Emperor Shen Nong makes first (perhaps mythical) tea drink by boiling fresh leaves

2004 BC: the Elamites, a group of nomadic peoples in the north, invaded Sumer; they destroyed Ur, captured Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur, ended the 3rd Ur Dynasty, and sent Sumer into civil strife; regular imports of tin from Britain began to go throughout Europe and the Middle East, making the use of bronze to make tools and weapons possible.

2000 BC: completion of Stonehenge.

2000 BC – Glass appears.

1900 BC. First Minoan palace built at Knossos c.

1900 BC: the Amorites, a group of nomadic peoples from Syria encouraged by the internal strife, invaded and conquered Sumer; they intermingled with the Sumerians and obtained many high positions, including becoming kings of cities, the most powerful being the Isin dynasty.

1894: Sumu-abum, an Amorite, conquered a small portion of land in middle Mesopotamia; he built up the small village of Babylon and there ruled as king.

1823 BC: Rim-Sin, an Amorite, became king of Larsa; he conquered Isin, ending its reign of power, and united Sumer under the rule of the Larsa dynasty.

1792 BC: Hammurabi, an Amorite, became king of Babylon; he defeated Rim-Sin, conquered Mesopotamia, and established the Babylon Dynasty; he oversaw navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, construction, cleared block rivers, punished dishonest officials, reformed the calendar, and codified the Sumerian laws in the Code of Hammurabi with its primary idea, "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth."

1750 BC: Samsu-iluna succeeded his father Hammurabi as king of Babylon; he defeated the first invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites, a group of nomadic peoples from the east.

1740 and 1450 BC Shaft tombs at Mycenae constructed

1700 BC Palace at Knossos destroyed c. then rebuilt

(14 royal tombs at Mycenae date between 1650-1550 BC. Thera volcano erupts in 1628 BC. Minoan palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquakes c.1600 BC.)

Hesiod's third age: The First Brazen Age of Mankind (1628BC-1472BC)

Men of the Bronze Age were hard. War was their purpose and passion. Not only arms and tools, but their very homes were forged of bronze. The men of this age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits but dwell in the "dank house of Hades". It came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.

1628 Zeus seduces Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus (first of Zeus affairs with mortal women)

1628 Car the son of Phoroneus founds the city of Megara

1628 Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt

1607 Argus the grandson of Phoroneus founds the city of Argos

(Achaean invaders reach region of Mycenae c.1600 BC)

1595 BC: the Hittites swept through Babylonia, took prisoners, and looted wealth; they brought with them the use of iron, which was used to make spears and battle axes; the Kassites proceeded the Hittites, conquered Babylonia, and established the Kassite dynasty.

1572 Criasus the son of Argus becomes king of Argos. Peiras his brother, founds the first temple of Hera in Argolis.

1570 BC: Agum, a Kassite, became king of Babylonia; he reconquered lost lands and extended his control over all Mesopotamia.

1527 Lelex is the first king in Lacedaemonia.

1517 Pelasgus rules over Arcadia.

1510 Polycaon son of Lelex rules in Messenia and Myles rules in Sparta.

1488-1460 Lycaon provokes the Gods anger by murdering his son Nyctimus and serving him up to the Gods.

1488 Danaus flees from Aegyptus to Rhodes then takes Pelasgian Argos

(c.1480 BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving tribute from the Danaioi)

1487 Lycaon king of Arkadia, introduces Zeus cult

1484 Cecrops king of Athens introduces Zeus cult

1472 Danaus becomes king of Argos in the Peloponnese after Gelanor steps down

Hesiod's fourth age: The Heroic or Second Brazen Age (1460BC-1103BC) - In this period men lived with noble demigods and heroes.

The monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.

Before the Hellenic Wars

1460 A flood is sent by Zeus to destroy all of mankind after Lycaon outrages the Gods. Deucalion and his family escape in an Ark, which Prometheus tells him to build.

1450 BC—Minoan Second Palace period ends and Late Minoan culture starts.

(Mycenaean’s conquer Minoans in Crete c.1450 BC. Earthquake destroys city of Knossos c.1450 BC. Palace is rebuilt and used until c.1380 BC)

1440 Dardanus founds Troy after being given a share in the kingdom of Teucer king of Phrygia

(Tudhaliya II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440)

1438 Zeus violates Europe, birth of Minos

1437 BC—King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I

1437 Cadmus colonises Boeotia and founds Thebes.

1421 Minos I becomes king of Crete

1420 BC—Crete conquered by Mycenae start of the Mycenaean period.

1420 Dionysus the son of Zeus and Semele daughter of Cadmus is born

1420 Persephone the daughter of Demeter is abducted by Hades

1410 Olympic Games held 50 years after the flood

1404 Dionysus is entertained by Amphyction king of Athens

1400 Cinyras the son of Paphos the son of Pygmalion the son of Belus funds the city of Paphos in Cyprus

(Cyprus is conquered by the Mycenaean’s and Minoan colony wiped out c.1400)

1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt.

1399 Erichthonius now rules at Athens

1399 Erichthonius rules at Troy

1397 Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.

1386 Dionysus known as Tauro Kranos restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers Damascus and all of India.

(Amenhotep III reigns in Egypt from 1386-1349 and refers to Greek cities such including Amyclae in his records, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400, Tudhaliya III rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.)

1386 Dionysus drives Pentheus the king of Thebes to madness

1385 Cadmus leaves Thebes and goes to Illyria

1377 Tectemus the son of Dorus founds colony in Crete and fathers Asterius

(Second Mycenaean wave of colonisation in Crete puts and end to Minoan palace civilisation c.1400 BC)

1375 Minoan culture ends on Crete.

1375 Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned.

1374 Pandion becomes king of Athens

1370 Athamas rules over Boeotia

1368 Death of Erichthonius, King of Dardania.

1365 Perseus son of Danae by Zeus is born

1363 Apollo fathers Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas

1360 Epopeus king of Sicyon at war with Thebes

1357 Pandions daughter Philomela marries Tereus king of Thrace to form alliance against Theban king Labdacus

1354 Erechtheus becomes king of Athens

1345 Phrixus while a boy is taken to Colchis by a Golden Lamb

1344 Pegasus the winged horse born from Medusa's blood after she is slain by Perseus

1342-1320 The children of Perseus and Andromeda are born

(Fortress of Mycenae built between 1400 and 1200)

1341 Perseus accidentally kills his grandfather Acrisius at funeral Games of King Teutamides father

1336 Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Phthia and his brothers

1333 Bellerophon goes to king Proetus court to be purified

1329 Cecrops the eldest son of Erechtheus is chosen by Xuthus to become king of Athens

1325 Amphion kills Lycus and becomes king of Thebes

1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.

1320 Melampus the seer cures the madness of the Argive women and receives one third of Proetus kingdom and his brother Bias another third. First temple built to Dionysus.

1315-1264 Pelops the son of Tantalus king of Phrygia and Lydia flees Asia Minor and rules in Pisa and Olympia

(Mursilis II king of the Hittites dies in 1315 BC)

1314 Pelops sister Niobe marries Amphion king of Thebes

1314 Pelops holds Olympic Games

1314 The Argonauts Calais and Zetes are born to Oreithyia and Boreas

1314 Pelops marries Hippodamia

1310 Electryon becomes king of Mycenae

1309 BC—Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was later driven into exile from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II's brother (or possibly nephew) Metion, so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married the King's daughter and eventually inherited the throne. After his death, Pandion II's sons returned to Athens and drove out the sons of Metion.

1309 Pandion becomes king of Athens and is expelled by the sons of Metion

1301 Oebalus becomes the second husband of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus

1300 Laius caries off Chrysippus the son of Pelops and Astyoche

1299 Minos II the grandson of Minos becomes king of Crete after Asterius dies

1290 Procris leaves her husband and is seduced by Minos in Crete

1286-1264 Sthenelus takes throne of Mycenae after Amphitryon kills Electryon son of Perseus

February 10 1286 Heracles is conceived when Zeus extends one night into three

November 4 1286 Heracles is born nine months later and named Palaemon

1285 Heracles strangles 2 serpents sent by Hera

1285 Asclepius is born to Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus

1284 Aegeus regains Athens from the sons of Metion

1283 Bias of Priene killed by his nephew Pylas

1282 BC—Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He reportedly only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion (son of Erechtheus of Athens) and his sons (including in some accounts Daedalus). His four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica.

The monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.

1282 Aeacus helps Poseidon build the walls of Troy for Laodamaon now king of Troy

1274 Pelias imprisons Aeson and takes the throne after the birth of Jason

1271 Theseus is born

1270 Aegeus accidentally kills Minos son Androgeus at Games held in honour of Laius king of Thebes and is forced to pay a tribute of 7 Athenian boys and girls every 9 years

1270 All of Greece plagued by earthquakes and famine due to Pelops murder of Stymphalus or the Athenians murder of Androgeus and Aeacus is sent to pray for deliverance.

1269 Atreus and Thyestes march against Laius the king of Thebes

1269-1235 Oedipus kills Laius the king of Thebes and marries his own mother Iocasta

1268 Heracles lies with Thespius 50 daughters and kills the Lion of Cithaeron

1264 Heracles marries Megara after defeating the Minyans while Creon is king of Thebes in place of Laius

1258-1246 The Labours of Heracles take place while Eurystheus is king of Mycenae

1253 Herakles brings back Alcestis the wife of Admetus from death

1252 Theseus kills the Minotaur at the centre of the Labyrinth built by Daedelus

1251 The Caledonian Boar hunt

1248 Heracles goes to Hades to bring back Cerberus

1247 The nine Muses who said to be the daughters of Peirus the Macedonian engage in a musical contest with Thamyris

1247 The marriage of Peleus to his second wife Thetis

1246 The birth of Achilles

1246 The 4 month long voyage of Jason and the Argonauts

1246 BC Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.

1246-1243 Heracles is sold as a slave to Omphale after killing Iphitus

1246 Eumolpus is victorious in the flute contest at Pelias funeral games

1245 Orpheus tries to rescue Euridice from Hades

1243 Heracles sacks Troy and puts a young Priam on the throne

(Troy VII destroyed c.1250 BC)

1243-1238 Heracles settles old scores in the Peloponnese

1242 Heracles conquers Elis and establishes Olympic Games. Polydeuces is champion Boxer.

1241 Heracles places Nestor who is still a boy on the throne of Messenia after killing his brothers and father king Neleus of Pylos for helping the Elians

1240 Heracles defeats the sons of Hippocoon and restores the throne of Sparta to Tyndareus

1239 Heracles leaves the Peloponnese and marries Deianira

1238 Hyllus is born

1236 Medea flees from Corinth after murdering Glauce the daughter of Creon

1235 Heracles exiled to Thrachis after killing one of Oeneus kinsmen

1234 Nessus carries of Deianira and is killed by Herakles with a poison arrow

1233 The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus's affairs with mortals)

1232 Cheiron accidentally shot in the foot while entertaining Herakles and Achilles his student, forcing him to give up his immortality

1230 The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.

1229 Heracles kills Cycnus the son of Ares

1227 Prophecy revealed from Oracle of Dodona that Heracles would die in 15 months after carrying off Iole

August 12 1226 Heracles dies and becomes a god

The Hellenic Wars

1225 The seven make war against Thebes

1225 BC: Tukulti-Ninurta I, king of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, captured Babylon and extended his rule through northern Mesopotamia; although the Kassite dynasty continued to rule, it was only nominal.

1140 BC: Shutruk-Nahhunte I, king of Elam, captured Babylon; he ended the Kassite dynasty and placed his son Shilhak-Inshushinak on the throne; he encouraged sculpture and literature.

1224 Theseus captures Thebes and buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.

1223 Eurystheus defeated by Theseus and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles

March 5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae

1221 Theseus abducts Helen when she is 12 years old and he is 50 and spends 4 years in Tartarus after Helens brothers the Dioscuri capture Athens

1220 Castor, Polydeuces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding

1218 After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes takes the throne of Mycenae

1215 Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Thyestes.

1215 The Epigoni attack Thebes

1213 Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90

1213 The Beauty contest. Menelaus marries Helen.

1207 Theseus is freed from Tartatrus by Heracles and returns to Athens.

1207 The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.

1206 Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is reportedly assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is an old friend and ally. Lycomedes, however, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.

1203 Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting in single combat against Echemus

1203 Helen is abducted by Paris.

1201 First Gathering at Aulis

1193 Second Gathering at Aulis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia.

1191 BC—Menestheus, King of Athens, dies during the Trojan War after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus.

1184 BC—April 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy.

Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769): Blick auf das brennende Troja Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe

The Trojan War was a war waged against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Greeks, after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

The war sprang from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera and Aphrodite, after the goddess Eris ("Discord") gave them a golden apple with the inscription "to the fairest" ( known as the apple of Discord) at the wedding feast of Peleus and Thetis. The goddesses went to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition of Hellenic troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Greeks Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks mercilessly slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few returned to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.

Jan 12 1183 The return and murder of Agamemnon

2011-09-09, 07:25 AM
1183 BC – * Iron Age - During this age humans live an existence of toil and miseryand the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."

1183-1173 The Odyssey

(A massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC)

1183 Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus

1180 Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus

1179 Odysseus held captive by Calypso

April 16 1178 The suitors vie for Penelope

1175 Menelaus flees Egypt

(Ramses III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC. Among those named are the Peleset, Tjeker and Denyen, ie. the Pelasgians, Teukrians and Danaians who are said to be based in Cyprus)

1175 The vengeance of Orestes against Clytemnestra and Aegistheus

1175-1174 Orestes is pursued by the Erinnyes

1173 Odysseus returns to Ithaca. Hermes fathers Pan by Penelope

1181 BC—Menestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus.

1173 Orestes kills Aletes son of Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends his search for Iphigenia

1160 Odysseus is accidentally killed by his son Telegonus

1158 Orestes is told by the Delphic Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arkadia and is killed by a snake bite while founding new cities.

1154 BC—Death of King Menelaus of Sparta

1154 BC—Suicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes.

1153 Autesion expelled from Thebes after he defects to the Heraklids.

1153 The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on.

(Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC)

1153 The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes

1150 Demophon dies in Cyprus

1147 BC—Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes.

1135 BC—Oxyntes, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas.

1134 BC—Apheidas, legendary King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year.

1130 The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.

1130 Penthilus the son of Orestes seizes Lesbos

1129 Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus who becomes king of Athens.

1125 BC: Nebuchadnezzar I became king of Isin; he defeated Shutruk-Nahhunte and united Babylonia under his rule.

1124 Tisamenus the son of Orestes rules over Mycenae

1115 BC: Tiglath-pileser I became king of Assyria; he defeated Nebuchadnezzar and reclaimed control of Babylonia, assuming it into the Assyrian Empire.

1113 The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus

1100 Brutus, grandson of Aeneas, leads a group of Trojan exiles to Britain. High Kingship of Brutus, followed by Locrinus, Gwendolen, Maddan, Mempricius, Ebraucus and Brutus Greenshield.

1103 The Heraklids defeat Tsiamneus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese.

(Indications of invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1100 BC. Attack on Asia Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC.)

1100 BC—Greek Dark Ages begin.

1089 BC—Melanthus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 37 years and is succeeded by his son Codrus.

1068 BC — Codrus, King of Athens, dies in battle against Dorian invaders after a reign of 21 years. Athenian tradition considers him the last King to have held absolute power. Modern historians consider him the last King whose life account is part of Greek mythology. He is succeeded by his son Medon.

1000 BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece

1000 BC—World population: 50,000,000

1000 - 900 BC Earliest hill-top earthworks ("hillforts") begin to appear, also fortified farmsteads; increasing sophistication of arts and crafts, particularly in decorative personal and animal ornamentation.

1000 BC: groups of nomadic peoples, mostly the Aramaeans and Chaldeans, began raiding Babylonia continuously; the Assyrians conquered began to conquer these groups one by one.

863 BC Bath founded

814 – circa 760 BC Dido

800 BC rise of Etruscan civilization

776 Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games.

753 BC : Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus : Rome as a kingdom

753/715 BC : reign of Romulus

705 or 722 BC: Sennacherib became king of Assyria; he captured and destroyed Babylon, tortured and beheaded prisoners, and enslaved women and children.

660 BC – Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule as Emperor of Japan.

660 BC – Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland

626 BC: Naabopolassar, a Chaldean, proclaimed himself king of Babylonia and established the Chaldean dynasty; he conquered the Assyrians with the help of his allies, the Medes, the Scythians, and the Cimmerians.

620 BC - 560 BC Aesop, Greek Poet

616 BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus becomes king of Rome.

605 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II succeeded his father Naabopolassar as king of Babylonia; he conquered all of Mesopotamia, defeated Egyptian invasions, destroyed Jerusalem (586 BC), and rebuilt the city of Babylon as his capital (including the hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the seven ancient wonders).

605 BC - King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.

600 BC: Foundation of Marseille by Phoceans

600 BC: India—Age of the Mahajanapadas—16 great kingdoms rule India—Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja

594 BC: Solon appointed archon of Athens; institutes democratic reforms

556 BC: Nabonidus, one of Nebuchadnezzar II's governors, became king of Babylonia; he angered the priestly class of Babylon and sent the empire into a state of civil wars.

551-479 Confucius

550 BC: Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica

539 BC: Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, conquered Babylonia; he added Babylonia into the Persian Empire and ended the Chaldean Dynasty.

534/509 BC: reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king

509 BC Founding of Roman Republic, expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy

506 BC: Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu.

500 - 450 BC Odin is recognized as major god of Northern Mysteries replacing the Mother Goddess

500- La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts, 15 BCE time of mythology)

499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.

499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia.

499 BC: Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.

495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.

492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades.

486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.

486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule.

480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 (popular culture mistakes it for being 300 Spartans but it was also 3000 other Greeks) so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians

450 BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.

431 BC Peloponnesian War

430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.

400 BC- Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece

400 BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.

399 BC: Socrates is executed in Athens on charges of impiety and corrupting Athenian youth.

390 BC – Belinus and Brennus, kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army and sack Rome

387 BC: Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome.

395 BC Corinthian War

350 BC. The The 'Tuatha Dé Danann' arrived in Ireland from the north Islands of Greece where they had learned about druidry, prophecy and magic. The Dagda was the leader of the Irish pantheon of gods and was commonly known as the 'father of all'. Tuatha Dé Danann was driven underground by invaders and thereafter inhabited the dark underworld of the hills and mountains, which were already full of fairies. October 31st was the night when the hills opened up and the spirits and gods poured forth.

340 BC Roman commanders are forbidden to settle warfare by single combat with Celtic Chieftains.

336 Alexander the Great succeeds father, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis

335 BC Celts encounter Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, on the Danube. They exchange pledges of alliance. Large numbers of Celtic warriors join the Greeks in a war against the Etruscans.

334 BC – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins of Troy before his siege of Persia.

333 Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes

332 Alexander the Great conquers Egypt

331 at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander the Great ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire

330 BC: Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire, decline and depopulation of Ancient Greece with large migrations towards the conquered lands.

330 Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing

329 Alexander the Great conquers Samarkand

327 Alexander the Great invades Northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to march further eastwards.

390 BC : Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls

312 BC: Seleucus I Nicator establishes himself in Babylon, founding the Seleucid Empire.

285 BC Further Celtic hostilities against Rome; massacre on the River Tiber. High Kingship in Britain of Beldgabred.

279 BC Celts invade Greece through Macedonia, temple of Delphi plundered.

264 BC First Punic War

299 BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.

298 BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.

293 BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.

281 BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.

280 BC: Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed

279 BCE Celts invaded Greece

275 BC: End of history of Babylon.

270 BCE Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).

264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.

261 BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.

260 BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China; a decisive Qin victory.

241 BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, and annexes Sicily and Corsica.

227 BC: The assassination against Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke from Yan failed.

225 BC: 225 BC Battle of Telemon; Celts advance on Rome again. Roman army routs invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy, all Celtic tribes south of River Po destroyed. From the major Celtic loss at the Battle of Telamon, Celtic lands come under pressure from the Germanic tribes to the north, and the spread of Rome. Gallia Cisalpina and southern Gaul are conquered; the Iberian Peninsula falls by degrees. High Kingship in Britain of Redon.

225 BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.

223 BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.

222 BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.

221 BC: With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin Dynasty.

218 BC: Second Punic War begins. Hannibal with Celtic mercenaries makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy , the Roman heartland.

216 BC: Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae.

214 BC: Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China.

202 BC Hannibal defeated at Zama by Scipio; extensive Romanization of Celtic tribes begins.

200 BCE The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.

168 BC: Battle of Pydna—The Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans.

149 BC Third Punic War

148 BC: Rome conquers Macedonia.

146 BC: Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

146 BC Battle of Corinth

110 BC High Kingship in Britain of Beli Mawr the Great, who married Don, daughter of Math. They have one daughter, Penarddun who will later marry Llyr. Other children are Amathaon, Nudd, Govannon, Aranrhod, Gilvaethwy and Gwydion. Beli Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of Dyfed. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who is claimed as the founder of Gwent.

107 BC: Roman consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, which remove all ownership restrictions for joining the Roman Army.

100 BC Glass blowing is invented in Roman Syria, Sunspots, first recorded by Chinese,

82 BCE Rome defeats Celts in Italy

73 BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War.

68 BC – Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to Rome.

67 BC– Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates

55 BCE Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.

52 BCE Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.

31 BC Battle of Actium

31 BC January 10, 49 BC: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, precipitating war with Rome.

44 BC– Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March

31 BC: Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium—Off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

27 BC: The Roman Senate votes Octavian the title of Augustus. Augustus eventually assumes all authority formerly held by the Roman senate becoming the first emperor. The Roman state is henceforth known as the Roman Empire, and the period from 27 BC to AD 305 as the Principate.

12 BC The death of Cúchulainn marked the end of the Red Branch Knights dominance. As a boy he killed a fierce hound belonging to a man called Culann. The hound was said to be as big as a horse and it took three chains and three men on each chain to hold him.

00 - Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire

2011-09-09, 07:26 AM
9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany

14– Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor

25– Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir

26– Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy

37– Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor

41– Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor

43– Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain

43-409 CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.

47 London founded

54– Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes emperor

60/61– Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.

61 CE Rome attacks Anglesey and destroys Druid Monestaries.

Remaining Druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland

64– Great Fire of Rome

79 Pompeii destroyed

100- End of 1st century – codex replaces the scroll.

105 - Cai Lun of China invents paper

122– construction of Hadrian's Wall begins

125: Zhang Heng of China invents the world's first water-powered armillary sphere

132: Zhang Heng of China invents first seismometer to detect the cardinal direction of earthquakes

168 - Ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye. He also compiles three of the most influential books in western history:

The Almagest which becomes the basis for western and Middle Eastern astronomy until the time of Copernicus and Kepler; The astrological treatise, Tetrabiblos; and the Geographia

200 - Inventions, discoveries, introductions

A primitive form of eyeglasses were developed for a nearsighted princess in Syria.

The South Pointing Chariot invented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that acts as a directional compass

An early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling, known as the Kongming lantern was said to be invented by Zhuge Liang.

The repeating crossbow or semi-automatic crossbow is an improved version of a model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is debate whether the original Warring States Period bow was semi-automatic, or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge's version could shoot farther and faster.

Some sources report that Zhuge Liang invented a primitive land mine type device.

Kama Sutra written.

Diffusion of maize as a food crop from Mexico into North America begins.

208: the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs.

212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men.

220: The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in ancient China.

265: The Jin Dynasty reunites China under one empire after the conquest of Eastern Wu.

350 AC The Fenian Cycle these tales revolve around the Fianna, a group of warriors famous for their bravery and skill in battle. They operated in groups of six warriors and were only accepted to the clan after they had undergone strenuous tests to determine their abilities. Finn MacCunaill is the central character during this cycle. One of the most famous tales from this period is about how he acquired his great knowledge. A druid who was one of Finn's teachers caught a fish in the River Boyne that was notable because whoever ate this salmon would know everything that happened in Ireland. After the druid caught the fish, Finn prepared it for him but he burned himself while cooking the fish. Finn licked his wound and immediately gained wisdom and second sight. With this power, he supposedly foretold the coming of the Danes.

370 Huns invade Eastern Europe

378 – Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans Fey worship

395: Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, causing the Roman Empire to split permanently.

395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location at Salisbury.

390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of Britain and takes the throne for himself.

400 AD – King Gunther of Burgundy takes over land down river on the Rhine and meets Siegfried, son of King Sigmund. Siegfried helps Gunther win the hand of Brynhild.

406 Visigoths, Suevi and Burgundians cross the Rhine and invade Roman Gaul. Beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

410 — Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome

451 Attila the Hun is repelled from Gaul by Roman–Barbarian forces at the Battle of Châlons.

455 The Vandals pillage Rome.

476 The last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, is deposed by Odovacar, conventionally ending the Western Roman Empire.

500 - Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland). Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany.

515 Battle of Mons Badonicus. The West Saxon advance is halted by King Arthur.

522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation

529—534 Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.

537: Battle of Camlann, final battle of King Arthur.

541-542: First pandemic of bubonic plague (Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople and the rest of Byzantine Empire.

Taliesin, Welsh poet

600 - Events

The world's population shrinks to about 208 million people.

600 AD Beowulf, king of the Geats slays Grendel

600: Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.

613 AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern Gaul.

650, The first Chinese Paper money is issued.

670s, Greek fire invented in Constantinople.

786 AD – Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan of Persia.

768–814 — Charlemagne

772 – 804: Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling the Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion, incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire.

793: The first written account of a Viking raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne in northern England.

794 - Vikings attacks the monastery at Yarrow, but fails.

795: Vikings run assaults on monasteries in Scotland and approach the Irish sea and attacks on Ireland starts.

797 - Vikings attacks Lambay, Ireland.

798 - Vikings attacks on France begin.

799: St. Philibert Monastery (France) sacked

800: Norwegians settle Faroe Islands

800 Gunpowder in Ancient China: Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality.

800 - Skiringsal and Birka trade centers are founded.

802 - Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas on the isle Iona of the Hebrides.

805 - Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas for the second time.

810: Danes under King Godfred attack Frisia

814: Charlemagne dies

820 - Vikings conquers the Isle of Man and establishes permanently.

820 - Vikings attacks Flanders and approches the moth of river Seine.

834 - Vikings approaches the river Thames, England.

834: Danes attack Dorestad, now in the Netherlands

841: Norwegians over winter in Ireland

839 - Turgeis (Torgisl) and a big Viking fleet conquers Ireland and settles permanently.

841 - Vikings under the leadership of Turgeis founds Dublin, Ireland.

841 - Vikings burns Lillebonne, Caudebec and Rouen and destroys the abbeys of Jumieges and St Wandrille.

843 - Vikings of Vestfold establishes a power base at the isle Noirmountier (Loire) and raids Nates.

844 - A Viking raid on Seville is repulsed.

844 - Turgeis is killed by the Irish, drowned in Loch Nair.

845 - Viking chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok attacks Paris along a big fleet.

850: Longphorts established in Ireland

850: Danes spend first winter in England

852: Danes spend first winter in Frankia

853 - Olaf the White conquers Ireland along a big Viking fleet.

853: Norwegian Olaf the White established as king at Dublin

857 - Vikings raids Paris again.

858 - Vikings captures the abbot of St Denis and claims ransome.

859 - Vikings raids in the Mediterranean for the first time.

860 - Rus (Sweds) Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

861- The third big attack on Paris by Vikings.

862 - Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.

863 - Xanten demolished by Vikings.

865: Danish Great Army arrives in East Anglia

866: Norwegian Harald Finehair subjugates Scottish Isles

866 - Danish Vikings establishes the kingdom of York, England.

870 - Harold Luva (Fairhair) starts his effort to gain full control in Norway.

870: Danes rule over one half of England

871 - Olaf the White returns to Norway, his brother Ivarr becoms ruler of Ireland.

871–899 Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, Viking advance is halted in England. Later he becomes the first king of a united England and formed new laws and fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.

873: Ingolf Arnason founds Reykjavik, Iceland

874 - Ivarr the Boneless dies, his sons continues attacks on north-eastern England.

879 - Rurik establishes Kiev as power center of the Kievan Rus' domains.

880s: Norwegian Sigurd the Mighty moves into the Scottish mainland

885 - A huge fleet of Viking ships attacks Paris, but fails in conquering the city.

885 - Harald (Luva) Fairhair finally unites Norway as one kingdom, first in Scandinavia.

886 - Alfred and the Danes splits England under the Danelaw pact.

891 - The Vikings at Noirmountier (France) is finally beaten.

894 - Turf-Einar, son of Rognwald and half brother of Rollo, becomes earl of Orkney.

900 - Vikings raids in the Mediterranean again.

902 - The Irish regain Dublin from the Vikings, and rule for fifteen years.

911 - The Viking chieftain Rollo is granted land by the Frankish king and founds the Duchy of Normandy.

917 - Vikings defeats Dublin by military power and regains the throne.

928 - Kings Æthelstan and Harald Fairhair joins in a treaty to gain control of the Norse Vikings.

930 - The first democracy (Alltinget) of the world is founded at Thingvellir, Iceland, by Vikings.

940 - Harald Fairhair dies and his son Eirik Blood-axe struggle to gain full control of Norway, but fails.

941 - Rus Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

947 - Eirik Blood-axe, son of Fairhair, gains control of York.

949 - Olaf Crovan defeats Eirik Blood-axe, who flees.

950 - Eirik Blood-axe regains control of York.

954 - Eirik Blood-axe killed at the Battle of Stainmore in York, Vikings defeated by King Edmund.

957 – King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.

974 - Emperor Otto II of Germany attacks Denmark, but fails because of Norwegian help.

976 - Maccus Haraldsson, first known king of Man, dies, his brother Gudrød approaches throne.

976 - Angelsey (coast of Wales) is included to the Norse kingdom of Man.

980 - Vikings starts regular attacks to gain control of England.

984 - Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland and starts settling.

985 - The Jomsvikings attacks Norway, lead by Earl Sigvalde, but is firmly defeated at Hjørungavåg.

985: Norse farmers led by Erik the Red settle Greenland

986 - Viking ships sails in Newfoundland waters.

991 - Viking chieftain Olaf Tryggvasson, along 93 ships, defeats Byrhtnoth at Maldon (August).

991 - Æthelred II pays, the first Danegeld ransom, off £ 10,000 in silver to stop Viking attck on London.

994 - Æthelred II pays off £16,000 in silver to stop Viking attcks on London.

995 - Olaf Tryggvasson conquers Norway and proclaims a Christian kingdom.

999 - Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland by powers of Olaf Tryggvasson.

1000 High Middle Ages

1000 - Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.

1000 - Olaf Tryggvasson dies in the Battle of Svolder (coast of Vendland); Norway ruled by Danes.

1002 - Brian Boru defeats the Norse Vikings and becomes king of all Ireland.

1009 - Viking chieftain Olaf Haraldsson (St. Olav) attacks London by river and destroys London Bridge.

1010 - Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North America.

1013 - Danes, helped by Olaf Haraldson, conquers England; Æthelred flees to Normandy.

1014 - The Vikings of Ireland are finally defeated in the Battle of Clontarf, but Brian Boru is killed.

1015 - Vikings abandons the Vinland settlements at the coast of North America.

1016 - Olaf Haraldsson regains Norway from the Danes.

1016 - Danes, under Canute the Great, gains full control over England. Cnut named king of England, Denmark and Norway

1018 - The coronation of Canute the Great, as King of England.

1026 - Kings Anund Jakob (Sweden) and Olaf Haraldsson (Norway) attacks Denmark, but fails.

1028 - Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway and Olaf flees.

1030 - Olaf Haraldsson returns to regain Norway, but is killed at Stiklestad.

1035 - Canute the Great dies, Magnus, son of St Olaf, expels the Danes from Norway and regains the kingdom.

1042 - Edward the Confessor rules England, supported by Danes.

1042 - Magnus, king of Norway, becomes king of Denmark.

1045 - Magnus grants Harald Hardraada half of Norway, as a co-king.

1047 - Magnus, king of Norway & Denmark, dies; Hardraada sovereign king of Norway; Claims Denmark as well.

1047 - Svend Estridsson gains control of the Danish throne, but Hardraada won't give up his claim.

1049 - Hardraada founds Oslo, Norway.

1050 - Hardraade raids Haithabu.

1062 - Hardraada defeats Svend Estridsson at the Battle of Nissen, but fails to gain control of Denmark.

1064 - Hardraada gives up Denmark and recognizes Svend Estridsson as legal heir to the throne.

1066 - Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada, who dies in the Battle of Stamford Bridge (Sep 25th).

1066 William, Duke of Normandy, invades England and defeats Saxon king Harold in the Battle of Hastings (Oct 14th). End of Anglosaxon rule in England and start of Norman lineage

1072 - Vikings conquers Palermo.

1085 - Danish Vikings makes a final attempt to conquer England but fails.

1086 The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first such undertaking since Roman times.

1100 AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.

1160 AD – Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood

1193 The first known merchant guild.

1206 Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Mongols and the Mongol Empire was established. The Mongols would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political borders.

1215 The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.

1282: Mechanization of papermaking (paper mill) in Xàtiva, Kingdom of Aragon

1282 - Llywellyn, the Last, one of the last remaining original Celts was executed for treason by Edward Longshanks.

1295 Marco Polo publishes his tales of China. A key step to the bridging of East and West

1297 William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.

1500 Late Middle Ages

1337 The Hundred Years' War begins. England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe.

1347 The Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.

1347 The University of Prague is founded.

1361 The fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued to rule Mongolia. The breakup of the Mongol Empire, which marked the end of Pax Mongolica.

1381 Peasants' Revolt in England.

1439: Printing press

1456 – 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. A descendant of Genghis Khan, his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula

1461– Trebizond falls to the Ottoman Turks. End of the Empire of Trebizond and of the last remnant of the Roman Empire.

1492 Christopher Columbus reaches the New World.

1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin. Italian Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope's ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India and Africa.

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria dell' Accademia, Venice (1485-90)

The Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science. European civilization began to change beginning in 1500, leading to the scientific and industrial revolutions. That continent began to exert political and cultural dominance over human societies around the planet.

1509 England - Henry VIII crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon.

1558 England - Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne

1588 England - Spanish Armada destroyed on August 8

2011-09-09, 07:32 AM
Hi all

I'd really like to fit all the worlds myths into a single timeline for a mega campaign, what do you think so far?

2011-09-09, 08:00 AM
I approve. Wasn't one of Heracles' deeds (not a specific labor) the freeing of Prometheus?

2011-09-09, 08:24 AM
Yes your right I'd say 1246 BC just after he leaves the Argonaughts

2011-09-09, 09:00 AM
Did you check it was OK with the mods? Something like "Timeline for my Scion/D20 Modern/some other system game"?

2011-09-09, 12:16 PM
Don't get what the issue would be, as long as I keep away- as I have from real world religions.

As for system I'm using it with 3.5, but as its fluff it could be used with any really.

Trying to add more information and trying tie them together, getting history to coilate with myth not the other way around - For example the celts of Camelot leaving with Arthur to Avalon (Fey Wild) in 537, and establishing a new realm once he has healed.

2011-09-09, 12:35 PM
I don't think this would go in Homebrew design. Maybe Roleplaying, but probably friendly banter or similar.