Please consider the following:

In the Victorian Era and afterward, coastal batteries and forts were the primary deterrent to naval assault, along with minefields of tethered and floating mines. When these became difficult to reduce via shore bombardment, the various navies built bigger guns, which were instantly mounted on the forts, so rinse and repeat.

The U.S. Navy had a lot of coastline to defend, so in addition to forts, (many of which are now tourist attractions on public beaches,) they created an ever-growing series of coastal monitors.

Monitors were small boats with big guns that could converge on an invasion beachead and out-gun any fleet that could be projected from overseas. The largest of these were battle monitors or coastal battleships. Monitors were not built to outflank and outmaneuver. They were designed to be sunk in shallow water where they would continue the fight, becomming an instant fort blocking the way of the enemy.

The Battleship was a hard counter to the monitors. It was expensive. Building them bankrupted several empires. They came in three styles:
slow, armored, big guns;
fast, lighter armor, big guns;
and fast, more complex armor schemes, smaller high performance guns.
(U.S., Italy, and Germany respectively.)

The end of the Battleship era saw the three design styles show their relative worth at Jutland. With an exception late in WW2, virtually every battleship sinking after Jutland was accomplished by aircraft or torpedo boats. (Subs are torpedo boats.)

Dreadnaughts were just battleships built in the style of HMS Dreadnaught. It was a consolidation of the gun layout from mounting guns of every size everywhere to a logical layout that allowed overlapping fields of fire.

Battlecruisers were the 'fast' versions of the battleship. By the end of WW2 they were simply 'fast battleships' because designs had equalized gun and armor, leaving only the cost of the engines as the difference.

The battleship was obsolete before Jutland due to the advent of the self-propelled torpedo. With a handful of torpedos on aircraft whole fleets of battleships were knocked out. Taranto and Pearl Harbor come to mind. And both of the largest battleships ever built were pulled back again and again to stay out of range of aircraft until there was nowhere left to retreat. They were also torpedoed.

If your setting lacks a 'torpedo' or the cheap, huge explosive weapon, (nukes?) easily deliverable by a sacrificial craft, then the better-financed defensive powers will want battle monitors while the more aggressive ones will want battleships.